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Шаблон:B3D:N2P/NAV Level: intermediate
Version: 2.43

Building a better (procedural) eyeball!
Originally created by Jon McKay (Ammusionist) and posted on blenderartists.org/forum
[1] The end result of this tutorial is an eyeball that fulfills the following requirements:

  1. Single mesh
    • I wanted to be able to append a single object into any project.
  2. Procedural Textures
    • I didn't want to have to rely on image maps that could get lost.
  3. Versatile
    • One single model to be used for any type of character, be it human, alien or whatever.
  4. Easy
    • Any effects needed to be quickly accessible. I don't want to be wasting time faffing around with colour-band settings at the texture level
  5. Impressive
    • This sucker needs to look good any way it goes.
  6. One other thing I really wanted was the iris musculature to follow the pupil dilation!


Содержание

Creating the Mesh

The objective here is to make a great looking eyeball. That means it may not be anatomically perfect, but there are some things we need to take into account: The eye should consist of a white (white bit with veins); an iris (coloured bit); a pupil (black but in the centre of the iris) and a cornea (clear bit surrounding the whole eye). These may not be absolutely correct, but these are how I'm referring to the pieces of the eye.

  • Start with a ball: Go to a front view (Keypad-1) and create a UV sphere. 24 Rings and segments should be sufficient. It'll give us plenty of smoothness and enough verts to work with when we create shapes.
  • This sphere will become the coloured parts of the eye, but we also need a second sphere for the cornea. Use the Z key to switch to a wireframe view (if you're not already there). Hit the A key a couple of times to ensure all points are selected then Shift-D to duplicate the sphere.
  • Press S-Key to scale and scale the second sphere to slightly larger than the first. (Hint: Hold shift while scaling for fine adjustment) or you could also enter a value, 1.01.
  • Now that we have a nice confusing mesh, we're going to make our life easier. We're going to hide the outer bit for the moment. Hit the "H" key.
  • Don't panic like I did the first time I accidentally hit H, you can bring it all back with Alt-H. (Note: In blender Alt + some key often reverses the effect of pressing the key in the first place!)
  • OK Now to create the basic mesh for the inner part. Basically, we need to make a concave iris/pupil section.
  • Switch to a side view and use the Border Select (B-Key) to select the first four rings and the tip. Now we're going to flatten these. Press "S" for scale "Y" for Y axis only and "number 0" for scale-to zero.
  • Now grab the flattened verts with the "G" key and press Y so that it goes the right way, and drag it a little into the eyeball.
  • Now for the cornea. It's not perfectly spherical; it bulges slightly at the front. We're going to use the Proportional Editing tool.
  • First, we need to un-hide the cornea. Hit Alt-H
  • Usually you would use the O-Key, but this little menu item allows you to to activate proportional editing for Connected vertices.
  • Once activated, you can select the type of falloff from the 3D header bar. Select “Root Falloff”
  • Press A-Key a couple of times again to make sure no points are selected, switch to a side view (Keypad-3) and right click just to the left of the front-most point. We just want to select that one vertex.
  • Now comes some fun. We want to drag that point into the eye in the y axis, so press “G” for grab and “Y” for Y axis. As you move the vertex, you'll see a circle that defines the influence of the proportional editing. Adjust it so it is about ¼ the height of the whole eye and drag it out until it looks right.
  • To clean the model up, we're going to apply a subsurface and apply some smoothing. Go to the editing buttons and find the modifier panel.
  • Add a subsurface modifier and set both level and render level to 2.
  • Now hit Tab to switch to Object mode and hit the "Set Smooth" button in the Link and Materials panel.
  • Now would be a good time to save your work before we go on to textures.

Adding the Textures

Cornea Material

White Material

Pupil Material

Iris UV Map

=Iris= Material

Pupil Dialation

Шаблон:B3D:N2P/NAV

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